Contemporary policing is developing rapidly and is becoming increasingly professionalized. For practitioners National Occupational Standards, Skills for Justice and the the new PDLP (Police Development and Leaning Programme) have brought a new emphasis on skills, standards and knowledge. Training for police officers and civilian staff working in policing is being significantly upgraded. At the same time it has become more rigorous, with universities and other higher educational institutions playing an increasingly important part in police training - as well as expanding the range of policing courses for undergraduate and postgraduate students. Key features: approximately 300 entries (of between 500 and 1500 words) on key terms and concepts arranged alphabetically designed to meet the needs of both students and practitioners entries include summary definition, main text and key texts and sources takes full account of emerging occupational and Skills for Justice criteria edited by the UK's leading academic expert on policing and the Chief Executive of the National Policing Improvement Agency Entries contributed by leading academic and practitioners in policing
Contemporary prison practice faces many challenges, is developing rapidly and is become increasingly professionalized, influenced by the new National Offender Management Service. As well as bringing an increased emphasis on skills and qualifications it has also introduced a new set of ideas and concepts into the established prisons and penal lexicon. At the same time courses on prisons and penology remain important components of criminology and criminal justice degree courses. This will be the essential source of reference for the increasing number of people studying in, working in prisons and working with prisoners. This Dictionary is part a new series of dictionaries covering key aspects of criminal justice and the criminal justice system and designed to meet the needs of both students and practitioners: approximately 300 entries (of between 500 and 1500 words) on key terms and concepts arranged alphabetically designed to meet the needs of both students and practitioners entries include summary definition, main text and key texts and sources takes full account of emerging occupational and Skills for Justice criteria edited by a leading academic and practitioner in the prisons and penology field entries contributed by leading academic and practitioners in prisons and penology.
Contemporary probation practice is developing rapidly and is become increasingly professionalized. Probation officers are typically described now as offender managers, and the creation of NOMS (National Offender Management Service) has broadened the remit of the Probation Service. As well as bringing an increased emphasis on skills and qualifications it has also introduced a new set of ideas and concepts into the established probation lexiconnbsp;- including institutional, legal, political and theoretical terms of its own as well as importing concepts from the disciplines of sociology, criminology and psychology. This Dictionary is the essential reference book. This Dictionary is part a new series of Dictionaries covering key aspects of criminal justice and the criminal justice system and designed to meet the needs of both students and practitioners: approximately 300 entries (of between 500 and 1500 words) on key terms and concepts arranged alphabetically designed to meet the needs of both students and practitioners entries include summary definition, main text and key texts and sources takes full account of emerging occupational and Skills for Justice criteria edited by a leading academic and practitioner in the probation and offender management field entries contributed by leading academic and practitioners in probation and offender management.
This updated encyclopedia provides ready information on all aspects of capital punishment in America. It details virtually every capital punishment decision rendered by the United States Supreme Court through 2006, including more than 40 cases decided since publication of the first edition. Entries are also provided for each Supreme Court Justice who has ever rendered a capital punishment opinion. Entries on jurisdictions cite present-day death penalty laws and judicial structure state by state, with synopses of common and unique features. Also included are entries on significant U.S. capital prosecutions; legal principles and procedures in capital cases; organizations that support and oppose capital punishment; capital punishment's impact on persons of African, Asian, Hispanic, and Native American descent, on women, and on foreign nationals; and the methods of execution. Essential facts are also provided on capital punishment in more than 200 other nations. A wealth of statistical data is found throughout.
This three-volume work offers a comprehensive review of the pivotal concepts, measures, theories, and practices that comprise criminology and criminal justice. No longer just a subtopic of sociology, criminology has become an independent academic field of study that incorporates scholarship from numerous disciplines including psychology, political science, behavioral science, law, economics, public health, family studies, social work, and many others. The three-volume Encyclopedia of Criminology presents the latest research as well as the traditional topics which reflect the field's multidisciplinary nature in a single, authoritative reference work. More than 525 alphabetically arranged entries by the leading authorities in the discipline comprise this definitive, international resource. The pivotal concepts, measures, theories, and practices of the field are addressed with an emphasis on comparative criminology and criminal justice. While the primary focus of the work is on American criminology and contemporary criminal justice in the United States, extensive global coverage of other nations' justice systems is included, and the increasing international nature of crime is explored thoroughly. Providing the most up-to-date scholarship in addition to the traditional theories on criminology, the Encyclopedia of Criminology is the essential one-stop reference for students and scholars alike to explore the broad expanse of this multidisciplinary field.
The Encyclopedia of Criminology and Deviant Behavior is the first truly comprehensive work in the field of criminology and sociology. This unique Encyclopedia is separated into four volumes, covering Historical, Conceptual, and Theoretical Issues and Self Destructive and Disvalues Identity. There are over 550 entries each with 2,000 to 3,500 words covering a multitiude of topics related to criminology, deviant behavior, and other unusual sociological phenomena. Each entry includes a comprehensive definition of the term, concise practical information (such as tables and/or diagrams) and a bibliography; they are written in such a way to be accessible not only to professionals or those familiar with the terminology, but also to students and non-expert professionals. The editor-in-chief of this comprehensive Encylopedia is a leading figure in criminology and deviant behaviour. He is the former President of the Southern Sociological Association and the Mid-South Sociological Association. Dr. Bryant was a founding editor-in-chief of the journal Deviant Behavior and was a Fulbright Professor at the National Taiwan University. He has also been awarded numerous awards and has written countless articles.
In light of Los Angeles' gang state of emergency, ethnic and minority gangs are arguably more high profile now than at any other time in our history. News media typically focus on the crime and violence associated with gangs, but not much else. This encyclopedia seeks to illuminate the world of gangs, including gang formations, routine gang activities, aberrations and current developments. One hundred essay entries related to gangs in the United States and worldwide provide a diffuse overview of the gang phenomenon. Each entry defines and explains the term, provides an historical overview, and explains its significance today. As the following entries demonstrate, gangs are part of the fabric of American society. They are not only in our communities but also our schools and other social institutions. Understanding the world of gangs is therefore needed to understand American society. Entries include: Bikers, Bloods, Cholas, Crips, gang mythology, gang warfare, graffiti, Hell's Angels, Hong Kong Triads, Latin Kings, law enforcement, occultic gangs, mafia, media, prison gangs, rites, Skinheads, Streetgang Terrorism Omnibus Prevention Act, tattoos, trafficking, Wanna-bes, West Side Story, Witness Protection programs, and youth gangs.
Anyone living or working in a city has feared or experienced street crime at one time or another, whether it be a mugging, purse snatching or a more violent crime. In the United States, street crime has recently hovered near historic lows; hence, the declaration of certain analysts that street life in America has never been safer. But is it really? Street crime has changed over past decades, especially with the advent of surveillance cameras in public places - the territory of the street criminal - but at the same time, criminals have found ways to adapt. This encyclopedic reference focuses primarily on urban lifestyle and its associated crimes, ranging from burglary to drug peddling to murder to new, more sophisticated forms of street crime and scams. This traditional A-to-Z reference has significant coverage of police and courts and other criminal justice subdisciplines while also featuring thematic articles on the sociology of street crime.
`General Editor Salinger (Arkansas State Univ.) and his panel of entry writers adopt a broad approach to white-collar crime: their excellent set covers corporate, organizational, governmental, financial, and political crimes, as well as important legislation and laws related to the subject. An impressive title on a neglected field of criminal justice ′ - CHOICE While we can easily name examples of white-collar crime, such as the Enron accounting scandal and the recent trial in the US of Martha Stewart for illegal share trading activities , there is no clear definition of what is meant by the term white-collar crime. The term `White Color Crime′ was coined in 1939 by Edwin H Sutherland in a ground-breaking address to the American Sociological Society. Sutherland challenged conventional theories and stereotypes to point out that we needed to look beyond poverty in studying crime, as criminal behavior could also be seen in persons of affluence and high social status. With more than 500 entries, the Encyclopedia of White-Collar and Corporate Crime attempts to provide an indepth examination of this relatively new social phenomenon. Encompassing historical perspectives, definitions, examples, investigations, prosecutions, assessments, challenges, and projections this forms the definitive reference work on this topic. The Encyclopedia of White-Collar and Corporate Crime is edited to incorporate information about a variety of white-collar crimes, and provides examples of persons, statutes, companies, and convictions. Each entry offers a thorough and thoughtful summary of the topic. Rather than a simple definition, users are given a satisfying and sophisticated synopsis with references for further study. Articles consider all aspects of white-collar and corporate crime, including: · Law: describes the specific elements of the laws in terms of what types of legal acts to which they are meant to apply; · Individuals: brief biographical sketches, primarily focused on how they relate to the study of white-collar crime; · Events: criminal events include descriptions of specific cases of white-collar crime, both past and current.
This volume of the series was designed to provide a comprehensive primer on the existing best practices and emerging developments in the study and design research on crime and criminology. The work as a whole includes chapters on the measurement of criminal typologies, the offenders, offending and victimization, criminal justice organizations, and specialized measurement techniques. Each chapter is written by experts in the field and they provide an excellent survey of the literature in the relevant area. More importantly, each chapter provides a description of the various methodological and substantive challenges presented in conducting research on these issues and denotes possible solutions to these dilemmas. An emphasis was placed on research that has been conducted outside of the United States and was designed to give the reader a broader more global understanding of the social context of research. The goal of this volume is to provide a definitive reference for professionals in the field, researchers, and students. This volume in the Handbooks in Criminology and Criminal Justice series identifies the principal topical areas of research in this field and summarizes the various methodological and substantive challenges presented in conducting research on these issues. In each chapter, authors provide a summary of the prominent data collection efforts in the topical area, provide an overview of the current methodological work, discuss the challenges in the measurement of central concepts in the subject area, and identify new horizons emerging in data collection and measurement. We encouraged authors to discuss work conducted in an international context and to incorporate discussion of qualitative methodologies when appropriate.
The Handbook of the Criminology of Terrorism features a collection of essays that represent the most recent criminological research relating to the origins and evolution of, along with responses to, terrorism, from a criminological perspective. Offers an authoritative overview of the latest criminological research into the causes of and responses to terrorism in today's world Covers broad themes that include terrorism's origins, theories, methodologies, types, relationship to other forms of crime, terrorism and the criminal justice system, ways to counter terrorism, and more Features original contributions from a group of international experts in the field Provides unique insights into the field through an exclusive focus on criminological conceptual frameworks and empirical studies that engage terrorism and responses to it
This is the substantially updated and revised 3rd Edition of the highly acclaimed Handbook of Criminology. It is the most comprehensive and authoritative single volume guide to the subject; combining masterly reviews of all the key topics with extensive bibliographical references to aidfurther research. In addition to the history of the discipline and reviews of the contribitution to criminology of different theoretical perspectives, the book provides up-to-date reviews of such diverse topics as crime statistics, policing, the criminal justice process, race and gender, drugs andthe media and crime. It is essential reading for all teachers and students of criminology and an indispensible source-book for professionals working in the field. A key feature of this new volume is the supporting companion web site that will offer students, lecturers and practitoners the benefitsof event-driven updating (displaying Home Office statistics as they are released) and links to other key criminal justice sites.The book has established itself as the acknowledged leading reference work and textbook in this area of law and has become the adopted choice of most undergraduate and postgraduate crime and criminal justice courses. It combines the talents of an unusually powerful group of leading writers whobetween them cover the entire spectrum of subjects now referred to collectively as 'criminology'. The 3rd Edition has been revised in recognition of changes in the politics of 'law and order', policy developments and the range of new topics being taught in the leading centres of criminologyeducation and research. New or updated chapters cover, for example, the impact of New Labour on policy, proposed sentencing reform, social exclusion, the contribution of psychological theory to criminology, managerialism in policing, criminal justice and crime prevention, risk assessment and the'What Works?' approach to programmes for convicted offenders.
Authoritative and informative, Sexual Crime: A Reference Handbook offers a thoroughly up-to-date report on an issue of extraordinary urgency. It is an expert introduction to a variety of often misunderstood crimes.Sexual Crime begins with a background chapter outlining the causes and definitions of sexual crime, legal and cultural attitudes over the past three centuries, and common myths surrounding this sensitive subject. It then offers wide ranging coverage of issues, including date rape, crimes involving male victims, rape in prison, female perpetrators, medical treatments, political ramifications, and other contemporary issues.