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Citation Styles

Links to citation style guides

Basic APA Citation Examples

In-Text Citations

If you are directly quoting from a work, you will need to include the author, year of publication, and the page number for the reference (preceded by "p."). Introduce the quotation with a signal phrase that includes the author's last name followed by the date of publication in parentheses.

According to Transue (2013), "connectivism is best understood within the context of established learning theories" (p. 186). 

If the author is not named in a signal phrase, place the author's last name, the year of publication, and the page number in parentheses after the quotation.

She stated, "connectivism is best understood within the context of established learning theories" (Transue, 2013, p. 186), but she did not offer an explanation as to why.

If you are only paraphrasing the work, you are not required to include the page number in your citation (however it is encouraged).

Reference List

Your references should begin on a new page separate from the text of the paper. "References" should be centered at the top of the page (do NOT bold, underline, or use quotation marks for the title). All text should be double-spaced.

Single Author

Last name first, followed by author initials.

Harrell, L. (2013). A learner centered approach to online education. Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing, Inc.

Two Authors

List by their last names and initials. Use the ampersand (&) instead of "and."

Mery, Y., & Newby, J. (2014). Online by design: The essentials of creating information literacy courses. New York, NY: 

Rowman & Littlefield.


Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. Location: Publisher.


Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article.Title of Periodical, volume number(issue number), pages. 

Information used from Purdue Owl: APA Formatting and Style Guide. (2016). Retrieved September 02, 2016, from

APA Tutorials