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Citation Styles

Links to citation style guides

Basic APA Help

Reference List

Your references should begin on a new page separate from the text of the paper. "References" should be centered at the top of the page (do NOT bold, underline, or use quotation marks for the title). All text should be double-spaced. Any line after the first should be indented 5 spaces.

  • Single Author

Last name first, followed by author initials.

  • Two Authors

List by their last names and initials. Use the ampersand (&) instead of "and."‚Äč

  • Book

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. Location: Publisher.

  • Article

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article.Title of Periodical, volume number(issue number), pages. 

In-Text Citations

  • Direct Quote - include the author, year of publication, and the page number for the reference (preceded by "p." or "pp."). Introduce the quotation with a signal phrase that includes the author's last name followed by the date of publication in parentheses

According to Transue (2013), "connectivism is best understood within the context of established learning theories" (p. 186). 

or place the author's last name, the year of publication, and the page number in parentheses after the quotation.

She stated, "connectivism is best understood within the context of established learning theories" (Transue, 2013, p. 186), but she did not offer an explanation as to why.

  • Paraphrase - you are not required to include the page number in your citation (however it is encouraged).

Information used from Purdue Owl: APA Formatting and Style Guide. (2016). Retrieved September 02, 2016, from

APA Tutorials