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Medical Humanities Research Guide

Use this guide to find UNO library resources and other helpful research tools.

PLoS Biology Citation System

References must be listed at the end of the manuscript and numbered in the order that they appear in the text. In the text, citations should be indicated by the reference number in brackets. Journal name abbreviations should be those found in the NCBI databases. A number of reference software companies supply PLOS style files (e.g., Reference Manager, EndNote).

References should be formatted as follows:

  • Published papers. Hou WR, Hou YL, Wu GF, Song Y, Su XL, et al. (2011) cDNA, genomic sequence cloning and overexpression of ribosomal protein gene L9 (rpL9) of the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca). Genet Mol Res 10: 1576-1588.
    Note: Use of a DOI number for the full-text article is acceptable as an alternative to or in addition to traditional volume and page numbers.
  • Accepted, unpublished papers. Same as above, but “In press” appears instead of the page numbers.
  • Electronic journal articles. Huynen MMTE, Martens P, Hilderlink HBM (2005) The health impacts of globalisation: a conceptual framework. Global Health 1: 14. Available: Accessed 25 January 2012.
  • Books. Bates B (1992) Bargaining for life: A social history of tuberculosis. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. 435 p.
  • Book chapters Hansen B (1991) New York City epidemics and history for the public. In: Harden VA, Risse GB, editors. AIDS and the historian. Bethesda: National Institutes of Health. pp. 21-28.
  • Published media, not peer-reviewed. Examples: print or online newspapers and magazine articles. Fountain H (29 Jan 2014). For Already Vulnerable Penguins, Study Finds Climate Change Is Another Danger. The New York Times. Available: Accessed 17 March 2014.
  • New media, unregulated. Examples: blogs, websites, and other written works. Allen L (01 Sept 2010) Announcing PLOS Blogs. Available: Accessed 17 March 2014.
  • Master of Science and Doctor of Philosophy theses. Wells A (1999) Exploring the development of the independent, electronic, scholarly journal. M.Sc. Thesis, The University of Sheffield. Available: Accessed 17 March 2014.
  • Databases and repositories. Examples: figshare, Roberts SB (2013) QPX Genome Browser Feature Tracks. Database: figshare. Accessed 17 March 2014.
  • Multimedia. Examples: videos, movies, and TV shows. Hitchcock A, producer and director (1954) Rear Window [Film]. Los Angeles: MGM.

UNO Writing Center Style Guide Cheat Sheets

You must cite any information presented in your lab report, presentation, poster or paper that is not your own. Not giving credit to the source of your information is plagiarism. Check out the links below to learn the proper way to give credit for items used in your work, including but not limited to data, ideas, cartoons, photographs, maps, charts, graphics or other information.