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# SPSS Research Guide

A guide intended for new users of SPSS

## Chi-Square Test for Goodness of Fit

Example: A chi-square test of goodness-of-fit was performed to determine whether the three sodas were equally preferred. Preference for the three sodas was not equally distributed in the population, X2 (2, N = 55) = 4.53, p < .05.

## Test of Correlation

Example: Hours spent studying and GPA were strongly positively correlated, r(123) = .61, p = .011. Hours spent playing video games and GPA were moderately negatively correlated, r(123) = .32, p = .041.

## Independent Sample T-Test

Example: Students taking statistics courses in Psychology had higher IQ scores (M = 121, SD = 14.2) than did those taking statistics courses in Statistics (M = 117, SD = 10.3), t(44) = 1.23, p = .09.

## One-Way ANOVA

Example: An analysis of variance showed that the effect of noise was significant, F(3,27) = 5.94, p = .007. Post hoc analyses using the Scheffé post hoc criterion for significance indicated that the average number of errors was significantly lower in the white noise condition (M = 12.4, SD = 2.26) than in the other two noise conditions (traffic and industrial) combined (M = 13.62, SD = 5.56), F(3, 27) = 7.77, p = .042.