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Dual Enrollment

UNO Criss Library Resources for dual enrollment

Why Use Citations

Academic Integrity @ UNO

The maintenance of academic honesty and integrity is a vital concern of the University community. Any student found responsible for violating the policy on Academic Integrity shall be subject to both academic and disciplinary sanctions.

Plagiarism

Many people think of plagiarism as copying another's work or borrowing someone else's original ideas. But terms like "copying" and "borrowing" can disguise the seriousness of the offense:

According to the Merriam-Webster online dictionary, to "plagiarize" means:

  • to steal and pass off (the ideas or words of another) as one's own
  • to use (another's production) without crediting the source
  • to commit literary theft
  • to present as new and original an idea or product derived from an existing source

In other words, plagiarism is an act of fraud. It involves both stealing someone else's work and lying about it afterward.

All of the following are considered plagiarism:

  • turning in someone else's work as your own
  • copying words or ideas from someone else without giving credit
  • failing to put a quotation in quotation marks
  • giving incorrect information about the source of a quotation
  • changing words but copying the sentence structure of a source without giving credit
  • copying so many words or ideas from a source that it makes up the majority of your work, whether you give credit or not (see our section on "fair use" rules)

Most cases of plagiarism can be avoided, however, by citing sources. Simply acknowledging that certain material has been borrowed and providing your audience with the information necessary to find that source is usually enough to prevent plagiarism. (from http://plagiarism.org/article/what-is-plagiarism)

MLA Citation Formatting

MLA 9 Citation Formatting

Core Citation Components

Works cited entries are created by consulting MLA's list of nine core components. Theses components are combined in a specific order with specific punctuation, detailed in the table below.

Core Citation Component
Component Explanation
Author. Begin with the author's last name, followed by a comma and the rest of the name. End this entry with a period.
Title of Source. Titles of books and websites should be italicized, while journal articles, newspaper articles, and magazine articles should be in quotation marks. End this entry with a period.
Title of Container, Title of journal if using an article, title of book if using a book chapter. End this entry with a comma.
Other contributors, These could include translators, annotation, foreward or introduction authors, and people other than the author(s). End this entry with a comma.
Version, If the source is an edition or version of a work, include it in the citation. End this entry with a comma. 
Number, If the source is part of a numbered sequence (multi-volume book or journal with both volume and issue numbers), list those numbers. End this entry with a comma.
Publisher,  The publisher produces or distributes the source to the public. End this entry with a comma.
Publication Date, List the date when the source was published. End this entry with a comma.
Location. Be specific when identifying a source's location. End this entry with a period.

 

Optional Citation Components

MLA also lists optional components that should be part of a citation only if they help the reader to more easily locate the source.

Optional Citation Component
Component Explanation
Date of original publication. If a source has been published on more than one date, include both dates if it is helpful information for the reader. End this entry with a period.
City of publication, Only necessary in works published before 1900, as these works are typically associated with the city in which they were published. End this entry with a comma.
Date of access. Include for online resources, as these resources could change at any time. End this entry with a period.
DOI or URL. Include the DOI or URL of online journal articles and websites. End this entry with a period.

 

MLA Tutorials

APA 7

APA 7th Edition

In October 2019, the APA introduced The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association 7th Edition.

APA 7 Formatting and Examples

APA 7 Citation Formatting

Citation Component

Component Explanation

Author, A. A.     

Begin with the author's last name, followed by a comma and author's initial(s) for sources with up to 20 authors. End this entry with a period.

(Year of publication).        

Include the year of publication in both the reference citation and the in-text citation. For the reference citation, the year is in parenthesis. End this entry with a period.

Title.

Titles of books should be in italics while titles of articles should not. Capitalize only the first world of the title, the first word after a colon, and proper names. End this entry with a period.

Title of Larger Work            

The container title should be italicized and all important words should be capitalized (unless it is a book title). If the source is a chapter from book or entry in a larger work then the title of the container is preceded by "In". End this entry with a comma.

Version/Volume

If the source is listed as an edition or version of a work, include it in the citation. For multi-volume books, include the volume number in parentheses. End this entry with a period.

If noting a journal volume, it should be italicized and followed directly (no space) by issue number in parentheses. This entry is not followed by punctuation.

(Number), pages. If the source is part of a numbered sequence (multivolume book or journal with both volume and issue numbers), list those numbers. Do not italicize. Follow directly by page numbers of article or chapter. End this entry with a period.
Publisher.  For books and other print resources include the publishing company's name. End this entry with a period.
DOI If using an electronic source, complete the citation with the DOI or URL if there is no DOI. For articles from library databases, use the DOI.

 

APA 7 Citation Examples

Article from a database

Author, A. A., & Author B. B. (Year of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume(issue), page range.      http://doi.org/0000000

Website

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Date). Title of page. Site name. http://URLGoesHere.com

Article from online periodical

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume(issue). http://doi.org/0000000

Book with one author

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. Publisher.

Book with multiple authors

Author, A. A., Author, B.B., & Author, C.C. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. Publisher.

Edited book, no author

Editor, A. A. (Ed.). (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. Publisher.

Edited book with author(s)

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. J.K. Editor (Ed.). Publisher.

Entry in a dictionary

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of entry. In Title of Encyclopedia. Retrieved Month day, year, from      http://www.URLGoesHere.com

Chicago

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Refworks

Refworks is a citation management system that allows students and faculty to gather, organize, and store citation information on information sources.  Its WriteNCite application allows users to create in-text citations and reference lists.