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English Literature Research Guide

Use this guide to find UNO library resources and other helpful research tools.

MLA Tutorials

MLA Citation Formatting

MLA 9 Citation Formatting

Core Citation Components

Works cited entries are created by consulting MLA's list of nine core components. Theses components are combined in a specific order with specific punctuation, detailed in the table below.

Core Citation Component
Component Explanation
Author. Begin with the author's last name, followed by a comma and the rest of the name. End this entry with a period.
Title of Source. Titles of books and websites should be italicized, while journal articles, newspaper articles, and magazine articles should be in quotation marks. End this entry with a period.
Title of Container, Title of journal if using an article, title of book if using a book chapter. End this entry with a comma.
Other contributors, These could include translators, annotation, foreward or introduction authors, and people other than the author(s). End this entry with a comma.
Version, If the source is an edition or version of a work, include it in the citation. End this entry with a comma. 
Number, If the source is part of a numbered sequence (multi-volume book or journal with both volume and issue numbers), list those numbers. End this entry with a comma.
Publisher,  The publisher produces or distributes the source to the public. End this entry with a comma.
Publication Date, List the date when the source was published. End this entry with a comma.
Location. Be specific when identifying a source's location. End this entry with a period.


Optional Citation Components

MLA also lists optional components that should be part of a citation only if they help the reader to more easily locate the source.

Optional Citation Component
Component Explanation
Date of original publication. If a source has been published on more than one date, include both dates if it is helpful information for the reader. End this entry with a period.
City of publication, Only necessary in works published before 1900, as these works are typically associated with the city in which they were published. End this entry with a comma.
Date of access. Include for online resources, as these resources could change at any time. End this entry with a period.
DOI or URL. Include the DOI or URL of online journal articles and websites. End this entry with a period.


MLA Citation Examples

MLA 9 Citation Examples

Book with multiple authors

Gillespie, Paula, and Neal Learner. The Allyn and Bacon Guide to Peer Tutoring. Allyn and Bacon, 2000.

YouTube video

McGonigal, Jane. "Gaming and Productivity." YouTube, uploaded by Big Think, 3 July 2018,

Article from online database

Alvaro, Alanzo, and Julio A. Canmargo. "Toxicity of Nitrate to Three Species of Freshwater Invertebrates." Environmental Toxicology, vol. 21, no. 1, 3 Feb. 2016, pp. 90-94. Wiley Online Library, doi: 10.0012/tox.00000.

Speeches, lectures, or other oral presentations

Stein, Bob. "Reading, Writing, and the Digital Era." Discovering Digital Dimensions, Computers and Writing Conference,  23 May 2003, Union Club Hotel, West Lafayette, IN. Keynote Address.