On December 13, 1937, Japanese troops captured China's former capital, Nanjing. The events that followed became known as the Rape of Nanking, or the Nanjing Massacre, which, with its magnitude and brutality, shocked the civilized world. Mass executions, rampant raping, wholesale looting, and widespread burning went on for weeks. After the worst of the atrocities was over, three American diplomats were allowed to return to the fallen city on January 6, 1938. Three days later, British Consul Humphrey Ingelram Prideaux-Brune, Military Attach William Alexander Lovat-Fraser, and Air Attach J. S. Walser, along with German diplomats, arrived in Nanjing on the HMS Cricket to reopen the British Embassy. The British diplomats continuously sent out dispatches reporting local conditions before and after their arrival. These documents form a consistent and reliable record of the massacre, its aftermath, and the general social conditions in the months that followed. This book contains a collection of British diplomatic documents, Royal Navy reports of proceedings, and US naval intelligence reports. A Dark Page in History examines these newly unearthed documents that enhance our knowledge and understanding of the scope and depth of the tragedy in Nanjing.
They Were in Nanjing by Suping Lu
Publication Date: 2004-11-01
The Nanjing Massacre, which took place after the Japanese attacked and captured Nanjing in December 1937, shocked the world with the magnitude of its atrocities. With newly uncovered eye-witness material left behind by American and British journalists, missionaries, and diplomats, They Were in Nanjing takes the readers back in time to revisit the event and live through those horror-filled days. The first-hand accounts range from English media reports, personal records, missionary and Christian organization documents, to American and British diplomatic and military documents. The research yields new discoveries and presents issues that have previously not been adequately dealt with, for instance, Japanese attacks on American citizens, and losses and damage to American and British properties as a result of Japanese atrocities. No other book on the Nanjing Massacre presents the first-hand foreign perspective so thoroughly or consistently.
Documents on the Rape of Nanking by Timothy Brook (Editor)
Publication Date: 1999-12-03
The Japanese Army's invasion of China in 1937 was the first step toward a hemispheric war that would last until the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945. What ended in one atrocity began with another: the savage military takeover of China's capital city, which quickly became known as the Rape of Nanking. The Japanese Army's conduct from December 1937 to February 1938 constitutes one of the most barbarous events not just of the war but of the century. The violence was documented at the time and then redocumented during the war crimes trial in Tokyo after the war. This book brings together materials from both moments to provide the first comprehensive dossier of primary sources on the Rape. Part 1, "The Records," includes two sources written as the Rape was underway. The first is a long set of documents produced by the International Committee for the Nanking Safety Zone, a group of foreigners who strove to protect the Chinese residents. The second is a series of letters that American surgeon Dr. Robert Wilson wrote for his family during the same period. These letters are published here for the first time. The evidence compiled by the International Committee and its members would be decisive for the indictments against Japanese leaders at the International Military Tribunal for the Far East in Tokyo. Part 2, "The Judgments," reprints portions of the tribunal's 1948 judgment dealing with the Rape of Nanking, its judicial consequences, and sections of the dissenting judgment of Justice Radhabinod Pal. These contemporary records and judgments create an intimate firsthand account of the Rape of Nanking. Together they are intended to stimulate deeper reflection than previously possible on how and why we assess and assign the burden of war guilt. Timothy Brook is Professor of Chinese History and Associate Director of the Joint Centre for Asia Pacific Studies, University of Toronto, and is coeditor of Nation Work: Asian Elites and National Identities and Cultureand Economy: The Shaping of Capitalism in Eastern Asia, both published by the University of Michigan Press.
The Undaunted Women of Nanking by Minnie Vautrin; Shui-Fang Tsen; Hualing Hu (Editor); Zhang Lian-Hong (Editor)
Publication Date: 2010-06-30
One of the Chinese American Librarians Association's Ten Best Books of 2010 During the infamous "Rape of Nanking," a brutal military occupation of Nanking, China, that began on December 13, 1937, it is estimated that Japanese soldiers killed between 200,000 and 300,000 Chinese and raped between 20,000 and 80,000 women. To shelter civilian refugees, a group of Westerners established a Nanking Safety Zone. Among these humanitarians was Minnie Vautrin, an American missionary and acting president of Ginling College. She and Tsen Shui-fang, her Chinese assistant and a trained nurse, turned the college into a refugee camp, which protected more than 10,000 women and children during the height of the ordeal. The Undaunted Women of Nanking juxtaposes day-by-day the exhausted and terrified women's wartime diaries, providing vital eyewitness accounts of the Rape of Nanking and a unique focus on the Ginling refugee camp and the sufferings of women and children. Vautrin's diary reveals the humanity and courage of a female missionary in a time of terror. Tsen Shui-fang's diary, never before published in English and translated here for the first time, is the only known daily account by a Chinese national written during the crisis and not retrospectively. As such, it records a unique perspective: that of a woman grappling with feelings of anger, sorrow, and compassion as she witnesses the atrocities being committed in her war-torn country. Editors Hua-ling Hu and Zhang Lian-hong have added many informative annotations to the diary entries from sources including the proceedings of the Tokyo War Crimes Trial of 1946, Vautrin's correspondence, John Rabe's diary, and other historical documents. Also included are biographical sketches of the two women, a note on the diaries, and information about the aftermath of the tragedy, as well as maps and photos--some of which appear in print in this book for the first time.
This collaborative archive includes digitized IMTFE materials from collections at the University of Virginia Law Library and the Virginia Historical Society listed below. These roughly 7,000 documents consist of personal papers from members of the prosecution and defense sections, official IMTFE records, newspaper clippings, photographs, and other related trial materials.